Tuesday, August 25, 2020
John Chambers (Cisco CEO) - The Role of Decisiveness and Decision Making - Essay Example In October 2011, CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s overall gain dropped by 8%, while prior in august this year, the total compensation had dropped by 36%, in spite of the fact that it later on rose by just a little edge of 3.3%. Investor esteem creation is one of the most significant methodologies in an association, and ought to be a need for a CEO; be that as it may, Chambers has bombed massively. As indicated by Rappaport (2006), administrators ought to consistently settle on choices that target augmenting esteem. Furthermore, now and again, it is savvier to restore the investors money in profit structure, instead of utilizing abundance money in ventures that wind up being ruinous. Accordingly, abundance money ought to be come back to investors whenever the worth making openings are not accessible. What's more, an association should concentrate on the exercises that add to long haul an incentive in the association. Conclusiveness is one of the significant characteristics of a fruitful CEO; the demons tration of being resolved is obvious in Chambers with the end goal that, notwithstanding the ascent of Cisco from $1billion to $40 billion followed by the difficulties in 2001, Chambers has kept on holding tight in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s administration. ... contends that the ceaseless recuperation of Cisco can be credited to the CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative abilities, as he is known as a powerful communicator and help of representatives. Writing Review John Chambers, the CiscoÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO, has confronted both negative and positive comments concerning his job in the organization. The inability to convince the open that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future profit are dependable is one of the current pundits. Chambers supplanted the top-down dynamic procedure with the advisory groups of administrators. This methodology required most directors to invest their energy in boards of trustees; this ludicrous framework was later on deserted. As indicated by Geothals, Sorenson, and Burns (2004, p.319), the nearness of the right data prompts educated choices, while conclusiveness makes space for ideal activities. All things considered, irregularity and inability to satisfy guarantees in a CEO makes a climate of doubt from the workers and the clients. Thusly, an open administration style adds to the advancement of trust, improved relational abilities, and listening aptitudes also. Nonetheless, incapable correspondence prompts poor cooperation because of absence of coordinated effort, decline in efficiency, and significant levels of turnover. Definitive directors know that their choices may not be successful; consequently, they leave space for alteration, and along these lines, they don't spare a moment to change their choices once they understand that their unique choices are not viable. This is obvious in Chambers case; for example, when chambers changed the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s top-down dynamic procedure to managerÃ¢â¬â¢s board of trustees system, the new methodology demonstrated ineffectual as supervisors invested the vast majority of their energy in panels. In any case, Chambers rethought changing the methodology subsequent to finding that it didn't
Saturday, August 22, 2020
During the Romantic Period of writing, William Cullen Bryant made the splendid sonnet, Ã¢â¬Å"The Tides. Ã¢â¬ This particular sonnet is the account of watching the tides change. The vast majority of BryantÃ¢â¬â¢s works are nature-situated and exploit different artistic terms. Ã¢â¬Å"The TidesÃ¢â¬ has a noteworthy significance, a few sentimental components, and utilizations numerous artistic gadgets. The general translation of Ã¢â¬Å"The TidesÃ¢â¬ is about what happens when the tides change. Bryant utilizes incredible portrayal in describing the rough oceans at elevated tide. Norbert Krapf broke down this sonnet and portrayed the water getting puzzling, not still and lake like. Krapf 6) The artist gives the water fierce attributes. Ã¢â¬Å"His creative mind changes the scene into a picture of constraint and imprisonmentÃ¢â¬ (Krapf 7). The sonnet starts as a quiet, tranquil sea. Progressively all through the story, waters become increasingly fierce checking as the differen ce in the tides from low to high. The significance of Ã¢â¬Å"The TidesÃ¢â¬ can likewise be extremely profound. As the change to elevated tide strikes, the ocean diminishes its pressure and discharges. People experience precisely the same thing by diminishing pressure. Norbert Krapf additionally composes that Ã¢â¬Å"The TidesÃ¢â¬ is ground-breaking and the ocean longs for discharge. (Krapf 7)William Cullen Bryant composed Ã¢â¬Å"The TidesÃ¢â¬ during the Romantic Era. Bryant gave this sonnet numerous Romantic characteristics. Depicting the ocean previously and during elevated tide sees the demeanor of Ã¢â¬Å"longing for the pastÃ¢â¬ While the ocean is getting rough, there is a feeling of the waters needing to become as tranquil as they were during low tide. The Ã¢â¬Å"love for the characteristic landscapeÃ¢â¬ is portrayed all through the whole span of the sonnet. The storyteller portrays a rough scene of the tides as they change into a lovely scene of nature. Bryant por trays the magnificence of the ocean and his thankfulness for the ocean.The Ã¢â¬Å"concern for individual freedomÃ¢â¬ is additionally a sentimental disposition seen in Ã¢â¬Å"The Tides. Ã¢â¬ The sea waters are depicted as detained and needing to ease their pressure. At the point when the tides formally change, the ocean turns out to be free and discharges the entirety of its pressure. Numerous scholarly terms and gadgets are watched while perusing Ã¢â¬Å"The Tides. Ã¢â¬ William Cullen Bryant composes this sonnet beginning with poetic pattern and changes to versifying tetrameter. This sonnet is likewise written in ten quatrains. The rhyme plot ABAB is available in Ã¢â¬Å"The Tides. Ã¢â¬ Personification is seen commonly in this sonnet, for example, in refrain eight.Bryant portrays the oceanÃ¢â¬â¢s water as a detainee longing for discharge. Run-on lines are utilized all through the sonnet. Ã¢â¬Å"And, with a dour groan, abashed, they creep/Back into his inward cavesÃ¢â¬ (Lines 23-24) is a case of a sudden spike in demand for line. Ã¢â¬Å"The Tides pass on through impressionistic symbolism a longing to get away from the draw of inestimable powers. Ã¢â¬ (Muller 254) Imagery is utilized intensely in this sonnet. William Cullen BryantÃ¢â¬â¢s utilization of symbolism makes a striking image of the tides evolving. The tones of this sonnet are excellence, quality, savagery, and serenity.The tides wish for harmony and peacefulness, and subsequently long for the low tide to come back once more. This is the subject of Ã¢â¬Å"The Tides. Ã¢â¬ William Cullen BryantÃ¢â¬â¢s lingual authority is seen by his exceptionally elucidating words, his rhyme plan, and his adoration for natureÃ¢â¬â¢s excellence. The abstract gadgets and subjects, sentimental components, and general significance of William Cullen BryantÃ¢â¬â¢s sonnet Ã¢â¬Å"The TidesÃ¢â¬ portray this time periodÃ¢â¬â¢s composing style. Bryant makes an excellent bit of writing that makes th e peruser consider the diverse Ã¢â¬Å"thoughtsÃ¢â¬ of a wave when the tides are changing.The love of nature is a sentimental component that is portrayed commonly in this sonnet. This gives the sonnet a Romantic inclination. The symbolism Bryant utilizes makes a splendid showing of giving the peruser a portrayal of the tides at its break. Ã¢â¬Å"The TidesÃ¢â¬ is an excellent work by Bryant and an ideal case of a Romantic sonnet. Works Cited Krapf, Norbert. Ã¢â¬Å"William Cullen BryantÃ¢â¬â¢s Roslyn Poems. Ã¢â¬ Under an Open Sky, Poets on William Cullen Bryant. New York: The Stone House Press, 1986. Muller, Gilbert H. William Cullen Bryant: Author of America. Albany: State University of New York, 2008.
Monday, August 10, 2020
The Morningside Post Announces/Celebrates Launch of New Site COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Students at SIPA have their own blog, The Morningside Post (TMP), and have recently completed a redesign of the site. If you are prospective student who lives in the New York city area and you wish to attend a launch party please see below for details. The following comes from SIPA student Kristen Coco. There will even be a raffle for an iPhone and the first drink is on the TMP crew! Community blog for Columbia Universityâs School of International and Public Affairs features student, alumni and faculty voices utilizing Web 2.0 technology. The Morningside Post, the community blog for the School of International and Public Affairs, welcomes prospective students to attend its launch party on Monday, February 23, 2009, right here in the Morningside Heights neighborhood. The student managed site features unique perspectives from nearly 100 SIPA students, faculty and alumni and is read in more than 100 countries around the globe. Youâll have the chance to check out the enhanced features of the new site, find out about our collaboration with The Huffington Post and win a new iPhone in the raffle giveaway (raffle at 8:30 p.m.). Enhanced features of the website include video recordings of notable speakers at SIPA; subscription services to posts according to author, region, and topic; RSS feeds; links to SIPA News; and space for student groups to post their own stories and events. TMP will also be cross posting content with dozens of other blogs that feature perspectives on international affairs, including The Huffington Post. Established in 2004, The Morningside has become a leading blog among graduate schools of international affairs and public policy in the United States, featuring intellectually curious and passionate bloggers, as well as readers from the SIPA community and throughout the world. Columbia professors including David Epstein, Andrew Gelman, Brigitte Nacos, Sharyn OHalloran, Jagdish Bhagwati, Anya Schiffrin, Thomas Lansner, Thomas Glaisyer, and Tanya Domi have provided their expert opinions on issues ranging from globalization and trade in the developing world to human rights and political development. The Morningside Post has also teamed with partners of the Global Public Policy Network (GPPN), including Sciences Po Paris, the London School of Economics and Political Science and the National University of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, to expand the global reach of student perspectives associated with SIPA. Student bloggers through GPPN hail from more than 10 countries, including the United Kingdom, France, Singapore, Germany, Mexico, Japan, Russia, India, Switzerland, Canada and Brazil. Recently, select student bloggers in GPPN schools participated in a live blog session facilitated by The Morningside Post on Election Day, offering opinions and analysis for the electionâs implications in their respective countries. Additional participating schools included The Hertie School of Governance (HSoG) in Berlin, University of Tokyoâs Graduate School of Public Policy (GraSPP), FundaÃ§Ã£o Getulio Vargas, Escola de AdministraÃ§Ã£o de Empresas de SÃ£o Paulo (FGV-EAESP ), Centro de InvestigaciÃ³n y Docencia EconÃ³micas (CIDE) in Mexico City and The Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO-University) So come on out, meet the bloggers behind the posts, and learn more about the innovation in international affairs thatâs taking place right here at SIPA! What: TMP Launch Party When: Monday, February 23, 7 â" 10 p.m. (raffle at 8:30) Where: Village Pourhouse 982 Amsterdam Avenue, between 108th and 109th Streets Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Part I: Introduction The Ecology of Commerce, written by Environmentalist Paul Hawken, is an insightful, although daunting, look into economic and corporate sustainability. Ã¢â¬Å" The first rule of sustainability is to align with natural forces, or at least not try to defy themÃ¢â¬ . This quote, spoken by Paul Hawken himself, is a perfect demonstration of the major theme he carefully analyzes within the book. Economics and the environment are two words that you often donÃ¢â¬â¢t see in the same sentence, despite the fact that the influence economics has contributes to the deterioration of our environment gravely. Part II: Background and Thesis Paul Hawken studies the many faults of the economic practices we adhere to globally. Whether or not we agree with his beliefs is a decision we as readers need to make. While an understanding of the environmental impacts is evident, as well as the biological changes it has put forth on humans, I question if individual change really makes a difference to the environment and the overall way the economy works. Hawken demonstrates a clear explanation to back up his statement of absolute resource destruction, but I believe he underestimates the change that may need to be done. I strongly believe we have reached a point in time where individual change is inadmissible, and in order to save our planet, large corporations and their accountability should be questioned. A world without sustainability, or more importantly a world without economic integrity,
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Financial journalist and New York Times best seller, Michael Lewis is the author of many published books on various subjects ranging from politics to Wall Street. 2008 global financial meltdown with the build-up the housing and credit bubble during the 2000s are the main topics of some of his best sellersÃ¢â¬â¢ books: Ã¢â¬Å"Flash BoysÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"The Big ShortÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"BoomerangÃ¢â¬ . Rare storytellerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to make the virtually any subject, lucid and compelling is the main reason of his popularity. He received an MSc in economics from the London School of Economics. After graduation, he worked for three years as an investment banker for Salomon Brothers before leaving to write his first book. Liar s Poker was based partially on his own experience at Solomon Brothers. His most current work includes columnist writing for Ã¢â¬Å"Bloomberg NewsÃ¢â¬ as well as contributing writer for Ã¢â¬Å"Vanity FairÃ¢â¬ magazine. His freelance articles were published in Ã¢â¬Å"The New York TimesÃ¢â¬ Magazine, Ã¢â¬Å"The New YorkerÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"GourmetÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"SlateÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Sports IllustratedÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Foreign AffairsÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"Poetry MagazineÃ¢â¬ . Mr. Lewis worked as editor and columnist for the British Weekly Ã¢â¬Å"The SpectatorÃ¢â¬ and for Ã¢â¬Å"The New RepublicÃ¢â¬ as senior editor and campaign correspondent. Mr. Lewis gained experience in television. For ABC-TVÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Nightline;Ã¢â¬ he filmed and narrated short pieces. For British Broadcasting Corporation, he created and presented a four-part documentary on the social consequences of the internet. Recently Mr. Lewis recorded stories for the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Wisdom Khaled Sabri Instructor Curtis Jones Christian Excellence March 18, 2013 Wisdom Wisdom is the practical translation and application of the word of God to everyday life. It is an integration of knowledge, experience, and deep understanding that incorporates tolerance for the uncertainties of life as well as its ups and downs. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s an awareness of how things play out over time, and it confers a sense of balance. We will write a custom essay sample on Wisdom: Question and H. Norman Wright or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are four components to wisdom: (1) Words from the wise, (2) Asking wisely, (3) being a person of understanding and (4) showing a little kindness. Beginning with words from the wise; H. Norman Wright states in his book Ã¢â¬Å"How to get Along with Almost AnyoneÃ¢â¬ that; Ã¢â¬Å"The words you use connect you to other people. But how are you connected: by a cord that binds you together or a barrier which keeps you at a distance? Ã¢â¬ Wright provides us with an example of real life describing the experience at the Department of Motor Vehicles: Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to get in the other line. DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t you read the instructions? Or YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to come back Monday Morning. When we use the word you as a part of an order or command, we usually end up punching someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s resistance buttonÃ¢â¬ . Asking wisely connects with the words we use. H. Norman Wright states in his book Ã¢â¬Å"How to get Along with Almost AnyoneÃ¢â¬ that; Ã¢â¬Å"Questions are an important part of human interaction. Some people use questions to deepen and enrich their relationships. But many people use questions to pry, maneuver, gain advantage, attack, trap, setup, or break down the defenses of the others. Ã¢â¬ We need to ask questions open ended as opposed to closed. A good example is Ã¢â¬Å"How do you like the restaurant? Ã¢â¬ as opposed to Ã¢â¬Å"IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t this restaurant awful? Ã¢â¬ One allows the other person to state their own thoughts and perspective while the other closes the other person out and just shows your own viewpoint. The third component is that we need to be a person of understanding. We need to understand where the other person is coming from and be able to put the attention on them and not just on ourselves. H. Norman Wright states in his book Ã¢â¬Å"How to get Along with Almost AnyoneÃ¢â¬ that; Ã¢â¬Å"The major characteristic of a person of understanding is revealed in Proverbs 14:29: He who is slow to anger has great understanding, but he who is hasty of spirit exposes and exalts his follyÃ¢â¬ . The Fourth component is that we also need to show a little kindness . We all know what it feels like to be taken for granted. H. Norman Wright states; Ã¢â¬Å"Do you know what it feels to be taken for granted? you continue to give of yourself over a period of time and yet there is no response to, or recognition for, your efforts. Even we should be able to give freely and lovingly without expecting anything in return, most people respond well when their efforts are acknowledgedÃ¢â¬ (Wright, H. N. , 1989) A little kindness can take you a long way in our path to getting along with others. These four components of wisdom are all steps in better ways to get along with others. By better understanding each other, and by possessing wisdom, you will be able to have better relationships with the people around you. The component that I feel is most applicable to me is asking wisely. A lot people have problems with this issue and it makes hard to respond to their words. By giving me your opinion other than asking me a simple question sometimes makes me feels oblige to answer the question the same way you want, thus depriving me from the right to say my honest opinion. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go back to the example provided earlier, if you said: Ã¢â¬Å"IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t this restaurant awful? I feel I have no place to state my opinion or tell you exactly how I feel. In summary, understanding that true wisdom is understanding and following the Word of God can take you a long was in getting along with others. It is a two part system; translation and application. It is important to understand the Word of God; and it is equally important to apply it to our daily lives. References H. Norman Wright (1989). How To Get Along With Almost Anyone. Nashville, Tennessee: Royal Publishers Inc. Sackett Christopher (January, 22, 2013). Wisdom. Examiner. com retrieved march 17th, 2013 from http://www. examiner. com/article/wisdom-3 How to cite Wisdom: Question and H. Norman Wright, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Which saltwater concentration will have the most damaging effects on potato cells? Introduction Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Generally, water moves from a lower solute concentration into a higher solute concentration. This movement of water occurs due to the need for the concentrations in the cell and in the solution to be at equilibrium. A solution with a low solute concentration and a high water concentration is referred to as hypotonic. A solution with a high solute concentration and a low water concentration is referred to as hypertonic. When two solutions are isotonic, there is no net flow of water because the solutions have equal concentrations. When a cell is put into a hypertonic solution, it will lose water and plasmolysis- shrinking of the cytoplasm- may occur in plant cells. Without this water there is little pressure inside the cells and the plant can no longer support itself against the pull of gravity. We will write a custom essay sample on Osmosis and Salt Concentration or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When a cell is put in a hypotonic solution, it will gain water and become turgid, or swollen. In plant cells, this is the state in which the concentrations are balanced due to the wall pushing back on the cell and the plant is strongest. When they are in a hypotonic solution, the cells become inflated with water and the plant stands upright and is able to overcome the pull of gravity. Aim The aim of this experiment is to find out which saltwater concentration is most hurtful to potato cells and use this model to see how saltwater affects plants in general. Hypothesis The highest salt concentration (15%) will have the most damaging effects on the potato cells. Due to the solutionÃ¢â¬â¢s high solute concentration and low water concentration, water will move into it and out of the cell, causing the cell to become plasmolyzed and weak. Control: the mass of each potato cylinder before it is put in any of the solutions. Independent variable: the solutions of varying salt concentrations. Dependent variable: the mass of each potato cylinder after it is put into the different solutions. Materials and Methods Materials for Saltwater Solutions 1. Table salt 2. Tap water 3. 4 Beakers 4. Pan 5. Wooden spoon 6. Teaspoon 7. Bunsen burner/ stove top . Graduated cylinder Procedure for Saltwater Solutions 1. Heat up 100 ml of tap water in a pan above room temperature, but do not boil. After the water is heated up, turn off the fire and start adding salt with a teaspoon. Stir the water with a wooden spoon as you sprinkle in the salt. Keep observing the water as it is being stirred. 3. When the water approaches 100% concentration, the salt crystals will no longer dissolve and they will remain whirling around in the water. Let it sit for a few seconds and then check to see if the crystals can still be seen. . If they have dissolved, then add more salt until they remain sitting at the bottom of the pan, at which point the solution is 100% saturated and cant dissolve any more salt crystals. 5. Let the water cool to room temperature. 6. After it reaches room temperature, carefully pour the liquid into a beaker labeled Ã¢â¬Å"100% salt concentrationÃ¢â¬ . Do not allow the remaining salt crystals to go into the beaker. 7. Label another beaker Ã¢â¬Å"10 % salt concentration. Ã¢â¬ 8. To make the 10% salt concentration, pour 100 ml of tap water into the beaker. Then pour 10 ml of the 100% salt concentration into the same beaker. 9. Label another beaker Ã¢â¬Å"13 % salt concentration. Ã¢â¬ 10. To make the 13% salt concentration, pour 100 ml of tap water into the beaker. Then pour 13 ml of the 100% salt concentration into the same beaker. 11. Label another beaker Ã¢â¬Å"15 % salt concentration. Ã¢â¬ 12. To make the 15% salt concentration, pour 100 ml of tap water into the beaker. Then pour 15 ml of the 100% salt concentration into the same beaker. Materials for Osmosis Experiment 1. Potatoes 2. Electronic balance 3. 20 Plastic cups 4. Cork borer 5. Knife/ razor blade 6. Ruler 7. Distilled water 8. Salt concentrations (10%, 13%, 15%) Procedure for Osmosis Experiment 1. Separate the 20 cups into four groups of five. 2. Label one group Ã¢â¬Å"distilled waterÃ¢â¬ trails 1-5. 3. Label other group Ã¢â¬Å"10% salt concentrationÃ¢â¬ trials 1-5. 4. Label other group Ã¢â¬Å"13% salt concentrationÃ¢â¬ trials 1-5. 5. Label other group Ã¢â¬Å"15% salt concentrationÃ¢â¬ trials 1-5. 6. Use the cork borer to make 20 potato cylinders. They should all be 3 cm long. 7. Use a knife or razor blade to trim the cylinders so that they are all the same size and use a ruler to measure them. 8. Use an electronic balance to measure the mass of all the cylinders and record this information. This should be the same for all 20 cylinders. 9. Take five potato cylinders and put one in each of the five cups for trials 1-5 labeled Ã¢â¬Å"distilled water. Ã¢â¬ 10. Repeat step 9 for the other three groups of salt concentrations. 11. Let the potato cylinders incubate for 40 minutes. 12. After 40 minutes, take the potato cylinders out of their concentrations and use a paper towel to blot off the excess solution. Use the electronic balance to measure their new masses and record this information. The graph above shows the total change in mass of the potato cylinders before being soaked in salt solutions compared to after being soaked in salt solutions. The change in mass was averaged from five trials from each salt concentration. Analysis The data results show that the masses of the potato cylinders decreased when they were soaked in all the salt solutions, or the hypertonic solutions (the 15% salt concentration solution showed the most loss in mass). This means that water was moving out of the potato cells and into the salt solutions, which suggests that potato cells have a salt concentration of less than 10%. The masses of the potato cylinders increased, however, when they were soaked in distilled water, or the hypotonic solution. This means water moved into the potato cells, which demonstrates that potato cells have a salt concentration of more than 0. In the first graph, we can see the beginning mass compared to the ending masses. The beginning mass is an average of 0. 82 grams and has a standard deviation of 0 because all of the masses were the same. This suggests that any value outside of 0. 82 shows a significant effect on the potatoes. Conclusion and Evaluation The hypothesis was correct. The highest solute concentration (15%) has the most damaging effect on the potato cells. The water moved out of the cell when placed in the hypertonic solution and it caused the cell to become plasmolyzed. Using potato cells as the model, we can generalize that all plant cells will plasmolyze and the plants will wither and die when placed in a solution of higher solute concentration than the plant cells. This is the reason plants have to be watered constantly with water that has a lower solute concentration than the plant cells. They must remain in a turgid state in order to thrive, and this only occurs when the cells are placed in a hypotonic environment so the water can move out of the solution and into the plant cells. For this same reason, vegetables are sprayed with water at grocery stores. The plants are no longer attached to a source of nutrients where they can get water, so they are sprayed with water to keep them healthy and prevent them from withering and dying. Although this investigation is reliable, there are some errors that contribute to its decrease in validity. The number of trials performed is a drawback. There were only five trials performed per sample which is not enough to make a large scale rule for the results of the investigation. Also, any outliers in this small set of data would alter the results completely and make them inaccurate. A larger experiment, perhaps with 500 trials per sample rather than five, would offer more accurate results. However, in the interest of time and with regard to financial constraints, the resources are not available to repeat the investigation multiple times. There is also some human error involved that may contribute to somewhat inaccurate results. When measuring the water and the salt solutions using a graduated cylinder, there may be instances when not all the water is transferred from one place to another. This may cause slightly inaccurate measurements of water and salt concentrations, which leads to slightly inaccurate results. There is no solution for human error because it will always be a part of any investigation, however, it is possible to be more careful when measuring and transferring solutions. Another contributing error is the precision of the materials used, such as the ruler, the graduated cylinder and the electronic balance. The ruler used to measure the potato cylinders measures only to the nearest millimeter and thus has a margin of error of Ã ±0. 1 mm. The graduated cylinder has a margin of error of Ã ±0. 01 ml because it measures to the nearest tenth of a milliliter. The electronic balance, which is probably the most important measurement tool in this investigation, only measures to the nearest hundredth of a gram. This makes it difficult to show an accurate difference between masses because they can sometimes be very close. A solution to this problem would be to use more accurate equipment. However, financial constraints must once again be considered. The more precise the tools are, the more expensive they are, and in a low budget investigation more precise equipment is not a realistic option.