Sunday, December 8, 2019

Australian Marketing Law for Johnson Chemicals Ltd- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theAustralian Marketing Law for Johnson Chemicals Ltd. Answer: Facts Johnson Chemicals Ltd. has developed a new weed spray which he wants to manufacture and sell to the public. There are other competitors in the market who are dealing in similar products and aim to manufacture and sell these products in the market. The companies are situated in Australia and hence are governed by the Australian Consumer and Competition Act, 2010. The Australian Consumer and Competition Act read with the Australian Consumer Law mandate that a company or a seller of any product shall be governed by the rules of the fair trade practices norms[1]. Fair Trading All products sold in the Australian market are governed by the Australian Consumer and Competition Act and the Australian Consumer Law. The basic premise of these acts is to ensure that there is no unfair competition in the market and fair trade practices are maintained. All sellers or producers of goods are obligated to be guided by the fair trading standards and any violation of the same shall be penalized. Queensland Co-operative Milling Association Ltd[2] is a landmark judgment that deals with fair market and competition in the market. The case is important because the Australian Tribunal acknowledged for the very first time that in cases of similar products in the market, there shall be rivalry. This case defined the scope of market and competition. The tribunal said that whenever two products are competing in the market, there shall be price flexibility and the rivalry shall be independent of the market forces and it should exist without any consideration to the price-product p ackaging[3]. Misuse Of Market Posiiton The Tribunal has also concluded that whenever a product has entered a market knowing well that there are competitors in the same market, he shall not take undue advantage of his market position[4]. By undue advantage, it means, that the seller shall not abuse his market position that he has achieved by being the same market. Section 46 talks in detail about the misuse of market power by any corporation. If it can be seen that a producer has a significant degree of market power and is using that market power to gain unfair advantage in the market, or is acting in violation of Competition Act, he shall be said to be acting in violation of Consumer Act. A seller is said to be abusing his market power if it can be seen that he is taking undue advantage of his market power. The seller shall not deal in predatory pricing and shall not attach exclusive dealing in his contract[5]. Unfair Trade Practices Section 18 of the Australian Consumer Law talks about prohibition of unfair trade practices. This section specifically governs unfair trade practices and conduct which are misleading or defective in nature[6]. S.18 is a negative clause that prevents or restricts any person from indulging in trade activity that will lead to unfairness or buyers will be mislead into buying a product. Sellers duties are inclusive of trust and if a seller by his conduct misleads anyone into believing that his product is of highest quality, he shall be penalized as that leads to unfair trade practices. If it is seen that a buyer is duped into trusting the quality of the product and as a result of the deceptive words of the seller buys products to see they are misleading, he shall have the right to sue the seller[7]. Section 29 of the Australian Consumer Law talks about situations and conditions that will lead to unfair trade practices[8]. A clear understanding of the section provides that there shall be no misrepresentation related to the quality, standard, value of the product. Restrictive Trade Practices Section 45 of the Australian Competition and Consumer Act restricts any contract that has a debilitating effect on the market[9]. No contract shall be in the element of reducing competition. If any seller tries to impede the entry of any other competitor in the market, it shall fall under restrictive trade practices because hampering the entry of any supplier in the market falls under the bracket of restrictive trade practices[10]. In this instance, the products are similar in nature and hence Johnson is duty bound to ensure that no restrictions are placed on the competitors or the buyers[11]. Section 54 and 55[12] place duties on the seller and mandates that he supply goods of proper quality. Conclusion All the above mentioned conditions shall apply on Johnson as he is dealing in a product which has a high market value and a potential to be manufactured by other competitors. Therefore, in the present case, the onus is on Johnson Chemicals Ltd to maintain fair trading and impose conditions that are not restrictive to trade. The Consumer Act lays down the duties of the seller while entering into the market and dealing in products. The seller is duty bound to supply proper goods of quality and free from defects. Bibliography Cases Queensland Co-operative Milling Association Ltd [1976] 25 FLR 169 Statute Australia Competition and Consumer Act, 2010 Australia Consumer Law, 2010 Articles Corones, Stephen G.Competition law in Australia. Thomson Reuters Australia, Limited, 2014. Whish, Richard, and David Bailey.Competition law. Oxford University Press, USA, 2015. Forsyth, Peter.Competition versus Predation in aviation markets: a survey of experience in North America, Europe and Australia. Routledge, 2018. Dunne, Niamh.Competition Law and Economic Regulation. Cambridge University Press, 2015. Kaplow, Louis. "Recoupment and Predatory Pricing Analysis." (2016). Elzinga, Kenneth G., and DAVID E. Mills. "Predatory pricing."The Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics2 (2015): 40. Swan, Dennis, et al.Competition in British industry: Restrictive practices legislation in theory and practice. Vol. 2. Routledge, 2018.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Travel and Tourism in Thailand to 2018 free essay sample

Travel and Tourism in Thailand to 2018 Published on 02nd APR. 2014 The Thai travel and tourism sector posted growth during the review period (20092013), despite the global financial crisis. The growth can be attributed to the increasing number of tourists from emerging countries such as China, India and Russia; international tourists to the country reached 26.7 million in 2013. While forecast-period growth is expected to be undermined by political instability, the countrys tourism sector has generally been resilient to outbreaks of political unrest in the capital, Bangkok. Tourism flows to key beach destinations suffer only temporary downturns. Synopsis The report provides detailed market analysis, information and insights, including: Historic and forecast tourist volumes covering the entire Thai travel and tourism sector Detailed analysis of tourist spending patterns in Thailand for various categories in the travel and tourism sector, such as accommodation, sightseeing and entertainment, foodservice, transport, retail, travel intermediaries and others Detailed market classification across each category, with analysis using similar metrics   Detailed analysis of the airline, hotel, car rental and travel intermediaries industries Reasons To Buy Take strategic business decisions using historic and forecast market data related to the Thai travel and tourism sector. We will write a custom essay sample on Travel and Tourism in Thailand to 2018 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Understand the demand-side dynamics within the Thai travel and tourism sector, along with key market trends and growth opportunities. Scope This report provides an extensive analysis related to tourism demand and flows in Thailand:   It details historical values for the Thai tourism sector for 2009 2013, along with forecast figures for 2014-2018. It provides comprehensive analysis of travel and tourism demand factors, with values.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

White Collar Crimes Cost to Society essay

White Collar Crimes Cost to Society essay White Collar Crimes Cost to Society essay White Collar Crimes Cost to Society essayThe development of modern society, based on the use of a huge number of the most diverse information, is inconceivable without a broad implementation of computer technology to the management process and many other areas. It serves not only for the storage and processing of relevant information at the level of state authorities and local self-government or commercial organizations, and is used as a means of communication between citizens, but it is also considered to be one of the most important elements in ensuring internal and external security of the state. Everything of this causes the development of legal regulations for the regulation of social relations that are associated with the use of computer technology (in the first place to protect the data stored with it). Thus, the main aim of the assignment is to explain the cost to society of white collar and computer crimes.In a dynamic environment of our century, society is constantly face d to various problems, which are often caused by a product of society’s desire to create a more advanced and efficient models of its existence. The above mentioned can be fully applied to a specific area of ​​electronic engineering and information technology. We have to admit that the process of informatization of society (especially its fast computerization) increases the number of computer crimes, their share in the total number of crimes. So, a high social danger of the crime committed in the area of ​​computer information, a large number of victims, established and concealed significant material damage, make the struggle against this negative phenomenon relevant as the fact that crime in the sphere of computer information is increasingly being used in the context of organized crime and especially the activities of terrorist organizations, which are increasingly starting to use the latest information technology and computer technology in their i llegal activities.According to the adopted theoretical approach presented by Croall (2001), the main problem of â€Å"white-collar† crime is in obscurity of the question of â€Å"who, what, when and how was able to steal, and how it was possible to do it†. Study of this phenomenon suggests that â€Å"white-collar† people rarely consider themselves as criminals, they are also partly accused by public opinion because white-collar crime is usually not associated with violence and, as a rule, there are no individual victims; moreover, the opportunity to bring the case to court and punish the criminals is rather rare. Among the most serious consequences of white-collar crimes are loss of shareholders, bankruptcy of companies, as well as negative impact on the state of workers and consumers.Considering the global, national, state, and local implications of such crime, it becomes obvious that the problem of computer and white-collar crime in all countries, irrespective of their geographical location, is in the need for increased powers of law enforcement agencies to combat these types of crime. Koller (2012) mentioned that this issue is not only the problem of law enforcement officials, but also it impacts on the employees of special services, security services, professionals and experts in the field of computer science, representatives of educational and research institutions, including experts on computer viruses, computer hardware and software.In the global scale, the facts of making international computer and white-collar crimes are becoming more common. Computer fraud is the problem of a particular concern because the use of computer technology in the â€Å"laundering† of criminally acquired assets, distribution of computer viruses, and hackers’ penetration in the international information systems and information theft may cause a chaos in many spheres. This problem necessitates the development of international procedures to as sist the investigation of such crimes in the future and the creation of a coordinating body within Interpol.Observing the cost to society of the above mentioned crimes, Choi (2010) mentioned that with the development of electronic payments and network workflow, every encroachment upon the information is primarily an attack on the material or spiritual values ​​- the basis of public safety. Breach of the exchange in information may simply paralyze the entire corporations, banks and government agencies, while everything of these may lead to tangible material losses in the entire industry.In national, state, and local scale, many countries consider the computer network as a vital component of their economic, social and political infrastructure. For instance, without paying a serious attention to the guaranteed protection of the processed information from unauthorized access, the polls and election results forecasting system can have a serious impact on the course of the e lection campaign. Moreover, it can lead to the fact that elections may be rigged and determined not by those who vote, but by those who would like to influence the outcome of voting in favor of a corporate group. To add, there is seen a serious trend towards the use of computer technology by organized criminal groups, terrorist organizations, which leads to the spread of computer and white-collar crimes on interstate level.Thus, security of the interests of all countries demands increase in safety of the use of computer systems in the interests of social development and consolidation of the international community; it also demands to improve the system of conservation of computer information, which forms the basis of information resources of each country; to develop and improve the security of information systems of the federal authorities, financial and banking spheres, the sphere of economic activity, as well as means of information systems and weapons and military equipment, syst ems of command and control over weapons, environmentally hazardous and technologically important enterprises.In conclusion, we have explored the cost to society of white-collar and computer crimes and demonstrated that these kinds of crime as a threat to national and international security really manifest themselves in many areas of society nowadays. These crimes present a threat to the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen in the spiritual life and personal activities; these crimes also threaten individual, group and social consciousness; information support of public policies; development of national information industry; security of information and telecommunication systems and facilities. Moreover, threats to information and technological backwardness, weakness of cultural values’ ​​impact on mass consciousness, information blockade (censorship), the possibility of information warfare, and information terrorism raise issues of blackmail, info rmation blockade, espionage, and other methods of computer pressure at the global, national, state, and local levels. All of these may lead the society and international community to serious consequences and losses, and have the negative impacts on the political, economic and social spheres.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand

Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand (sometimes called simply Cross Elasticity of Demand) is an expression of the degree to which the demand for one product lets call this Product A changes when the price of Product B changes. Stated in the abstract, this might seem a little difficult to grasp, but an example or two  makes the concept clear its not difficult.   Examples of Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand Assume for a moment youve been lucky enough to get in on the ground floor of the Greek Yogurt craze. Your Greek yogurt product B, is immensely popular, allowing you to increase the single cup price from around $0.90 a cup to $1.50 a cup. Now, in fact, you may continue to do well, but at least some persons will revert back to the good old non-Greek yogurt (Product A) at the $.090/cup price. By changing the price of Product B youve increased the demand for Product A, even though theyre not highly similar products. In fact, they can be quite similar or quite different the essential point is that there will often be some correlation, strong, weak or even negative between the demand for one product when the price of another one changes. At other times, there may be no correlation. Substitute Goods The aspirin example shows what happens to the demand for good B when the price of good A increases. Manufacturer As price has increased, demand for its aspirin product (for which there are many substitute goods)  decreases. Since aspirin is so widely available, there probably wont be a great increase in each of these many other brands; however, in instances where there are only a few substitutes, or perhaps only one, the demand increase may be marked. Gasoline vs. electric automobiles is an interesting instance of this. In practice, there really are only a few automobile alternatives: gasoline automobiles, diesel, and electrics. Gasoline and diesel  prices, as youll remember, have been extremely volatile since the late 1980s. As U.S. gasoline prices reached $5/gallon in some West Coast cities, the demand for electric cars increased. However, since 2014 gasoline prices have fallen. With that, demand for electrics fell with them, putting automobile manufacturers in a peculiar bind. They needed to sell electrics to keep their fleet mileage averages down, but consumers began buying gasoline trucks and larger gasoline autos again. This forced manufacturers Fiat/Dodge  is a case in point to lower the price of electrics below their actual production cost in order to keep selling gasoline-powered trucks and muscle cars without triggering a federal government penalty.   Complimentary Goods A local Seattle band has a breakthrough hit millions and millions of streams, many, many downloads and a  hundred thousand albums sold, all in a few weeks. The band begins touring and in response to demand, ticket prices begin climbing. But now something interesting happens: as the ticket prices increase, the audience becomes smaller no problem so far because whats happening essentially is that the band is playing smaller venues but at greatly increased ticket prices still a win. But then, the bands management sees a problem. As the audience grows smaller, so do the sales of all those high mark-up collectibles band T-shirts, coffee mugs, photo albums and so on: the  merch. Our Seattle band has more than doubled the ticket price at $60.00 and is still selling about half as many tickets at each venue.  So far so good: 500 tickets times $60.00 is more money than 1,000 tickets times $25.00. However, the band had enjoyed robust merch sales averaging $35 a head. Now the equation looks a little different: 500 tix x $(60.00 $35.00) is less than 1,000 tix x ($25.0035). The drop in ticket sales at a higher price created a proportionate drop in merch sales. The two products are complementary. As the price increases for band tickets, the demand for band merch drops.   The Formula You can calculate the Cross Price Elasticity of Demand (CPoD) as follows: CPEoD (% Change in Quantity Demand for Good A)  Ãƒ · (% Change in Price for Good A)

Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand

Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand (sometimes called simply Cross Elasticity of Demand) is an expression of the degree to which the demand for one product lets call this Product A changes when the price of Product B changes. Stated in the abstract, this might seem a little difficult to grasp, but an example or two  makes the concept clear its not difficult.   Examples of Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand Assume for a moment youve been lucky enough to get in on the ground floor of the Greek Yogurt craze. Your Greek yogurt product B, is immensely popular, allowing you to increase the single cup price from around $0.90 a cup to $1.50 a cup. Now, in fact, you may continue to do well, but at least some persons will revert back to the good old non-Greek yogurt (Product A) at the $.090/cup price. By changing the price of Product B youve increased the demand for Product A, even though theyre not highly similar products. In fact, they can be quite similar or quite different the essential point is that there will often be some correlation, strong, weak or even negative between the demand for one product when the price of another one changes. At other times, there may be no correlation. Substitute Goods The aspirin example shows what happens to the demand for good B when the price of good A increases. Manufacturer As price has increased, demand for its aspirin product (for which there are many substitute goods)  decreases. Since aspirin is so widely available, there probably wont be a great increase in each of these many other brands; however, in instances where there are only a few substitutes, or perhaps only one, the demand increase may be marked. Gasoline vs. electric automobiles is an interesting instance of this. In practice, there really are only a few automobile alternatives: gasoline automobiles, diesel, and electrics. Gasoline and diesel  prices, as youll remember, have been extremely volatile since the late 1980s. As U.S. gasoline prices reached $5/gallon in some West Coast cities, the demand for electric cars increased. However, since 2014 gasoline prices have fallen. With that, demand for electrics fell with them, putting automobile manufacturers in a peculiar bind. They needed to sell electrics to keep their fleet mileage averages down, but consumers began buying gasoline trucks and larger gasoline autos again. This forced manufacturers Fiat/Dodge  is a case in point to lower the price of electrics below their actual production cost in order to keep selling gasoline-powered trucks and muscle cars without triggering a federal government penalty.   Complimentary Goods A local Seattle band has a breakthrough hit millions and millions of streams, many, many downloads and a  hundred thousand albums sold, all in a few weeks. The band begins touring and in response to demand, ticket prices begin climbing. But now something interesting happens: as the ticket prices increase, the audience becomes smaller no problem so far because whats happening essentially is that the band is playing smaller venues but at greatly increased ticket prices still a win. But then, the bands management sees a problem. As the audience grows smaller, so do the sales of all those high mark-up collectibles band T-shirts, coffee mugs, photo albums and so on: the  merch. Our Seattle band has more than doubled the ticket price at $60.00 and is still selling about half as many tickets at each venue.  So far so good: 500 tickets times $60.00 is more money than 1,000 tickets times $25.00. However, the band had enjoyed robust merch sales averaging $35 a head. Now the equation looks a little different: 500 tix x $(60.00 $35.00) is less than 1,000 tix x ($25.0035). The drop in ticket sales at a higher price created a proportionate drop in merch sales. The two products are complementary. As the price increases for band tickets, the demand for band merch drops.   The Formula You can calculate the Cross Price Elasticity of Demand (CPoD) as follows: CPEoD (% Change in Quantity Demand for Good A)  Ãƒ · (% Change in Price for Good A)

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Place of African Traditional Religion in Contemporary Africa Essay

The Place of African Traditional Religion in Contemporary Africa - Essay Example The introduction of European Christianity and values separated the indigenous Africans from their traditional spiritual roots as well as their traditional distinctiveness as a spiritual people. Traditional African religion is focused on the existence of one Ultimate High God. However, the Europeans who introduced Christianity in Africa didn’t understand or properly appreciate the Africans own understanding of the Great Creator. They saw no resemblance between the God they talked about and the Africans own belief in the One Highest God and creator who was, Omnipotent, king, the Great Judge, Omniscient, Compassionate, Holy and Obscure, Immortal and Supreme (Olupona, 1991). The traditional African belief is that the Great One brought the mysticisms into being. He therefore is the creator and everything in heaven and on earth owes their origin to Him alone. He is the king of kings and can not be likened in majesty. He is above all grandeurs and divinities. He resides everywhere. Thus He is omnipotent and is able to do all things and nothing can be created apart from Him. He is behind all achievements. He alone can speak and accomplish his words (Olupona, 1991). In Yoruba myth, Sango once governed as the fourth Alaafin of Oyo. Sango is said to have succeeded his father as one of the early kings of Oyo, and several verses say that he became a king. He was recognized for his magical power and was feared because when he spoke, fire came out of his mouth (Olupona, 1991).  After his unusual life and controversial death, his friends esteemed him as a god. His cult has enjoyed the royal patronage of the Alaafin of Oyo, who is regarded as his descendant. Sangos cult played a significant role in securing the peoples loyalty to the Alaafin in the days of the Oyo Empire (Olupona, 1991)   History has it that he is the son of Yemoja, the mother goddess and guardian of birth. Sango had three wives. Sangos followers regard him as the epithet of

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Project Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Project Management - Essay Example In this regard, it has been observed that Nokia Corporation is one of the renowned companies, which has recently undergone a change in its operational processes in order to remain abreast with the changing environment of the market. The company has undergone a redesigning process in its operations to cope up with the changing needs of the customers as well as the markets all over the world. The revised operational strategy of the company includes the strategic alliance of it with Microsoft to come up with different ranges of products in the market. This alliance enables the company to deliver innovative products and enhance its geographical reach along with product identity. With this strategy, the company has the desire to increase its sales by a considerable margin. This change was much needed for the company as the nature of the market was constantly changing and there was a danger that the preferences of the customers might get switched to another brand. This approach of the comp any correlates with the operational purview where a company generally changes its operational strategy in accordance with the needs of the current business environment. This approach is termed as operational strategy approach of market requirement (Nokia, 2011; Slack & Nigel, 2009). Furthermore, the operational strategy of the company has witnessed significant changes in the recent years with the inception of the new leadership team in the operations. It has been observed that the new team of the company has acquired considerable knowledge and is competent to deal with the dynamic nature of today’s business environment. The team is also viewed to have utmost commitment towards the operational goals of the organisation. With the establishment of a new team, the company i.e. Nokia will be able to improve its decision making perspective as it is directly connected with the performance of the organisation. Furthermore, the new team of the company will also facilitate to enhance t he marketing operations or activities of the products which were lacking in the previous operating strategy of the company. In precise, it can be said that the new team of the organisation, which is a part of the operational strategy, will have its maximum focus on speed as well as accountability that would ultimately enable to deliver positive results. It would be vital to mention in this regard that the company has appointed a new face for every section of its operations from top to bottom and each one of them will have their specific targets that need to be fulfilled. This approach of the company correlates with the top-down operational strategy. In such strategy, companies experience a change from top to bottom in its operational conduct (Nokia, 2011; Pearson Education, 2010; Slack & Nigel, 2009). From the overall analysis of the strategy of Nokia Corporation, it has been learnt that the company follows two operational approaches which entail the current market requirement appro ach as well as the top-down approach. However, there are two more operational strategies that can be incorporated by the organisation in its operation. These two approaches will comprise bottom-up approach and strategy based on resources of organisation. In the bottom-up approach, a company such as Nokia would experience a change in strategy from bottom to top by taking into consideration the views and the